Bayerは2003年末までに、Bayer CropScience、Bayer Healthcare、Bayer Polymers、Bayer Chemicals の4社と、サービス会社3社の合計 7社を分社化したが、2004年7月にBayer Chemicalsの大半とBayer Polymersの一部を新会社 Lanxess として分離し、2005年に上場した。

「動き出す」という意味のフランス語 『lancer』と
  「成功」という意味の英語 『success』を組み合わせたもの

社名が「Elberfelder Farbenfabriken vormals Friedrich Bayer & Co.」と長かった

1863 8月1日、実業家のフリードリヒ・バイエルと染物師のヨハン・フリードリヒ・ウェスコットが、現在はブッパータールの一部であるバルメンに染料工場を設立。
1865 2人は米国のコールタール染料工場の株式を購入、中間体の輸出を開始。
1876 モスクワで染料工場が操業開始。
1881 7月1日、バイエルとウェスコットの子孫により、これまでのフリードリヒ・バイエル商会は、ファーベンファブリケン株式会社に。
1884 化学者のカール・デュイスベルクがバイエルに入社。彼の指揮下で、バイエルの化学者たちが数々の先駆的な発見をする。
1888 医薬品部門が創設される。
1897 バイエルの科学者フェリックス・ホフマンがアスピリンの有効成分であるアセチルサリチル酸を化学的に純粋で安定した形で合成することに初めて成功。
1899 アスピリンが商標登録され、世界中で愛用される鎮痛剤となる。
1912 本社をレバクーゼンに移転。
1925 ファーベンファブリケン株式会社が他社と合併し、IGファルベン社が 発足。レバクーゼンは、IG社ニーダーライン事業所の主力工場となる。ドイツ最大の化学企業であったIGファルベン社は「第三帝国」の台頭に巻き込まれる こととなった。第二次世界大戦後、連合軍に接収、後に解体される。

1925年、バーデン・アニリン・ソーダ (BASF)、フリードリッヒ・バイエル、ヘキスト、アニリンファブリカツィオン(Agfa)、レオポルト・カセラCassella、カレChemische Fabrik Kalle、グリースハイム・エレクトロンChemische Fabrik Griesheim-Elektron、ワイラー・テル・メールChemische Fabrik vorm. Weiler Ter Meerの8社が合同して、フランクフルト・アム・マインを本社所在地とし、資本金11億ライヒスマルクで発足した。グリースハイム・エレクトロンとワイラー・テル・メールを除く6社は「ドイツ染料タール利益共同体」(Interessengemeinschaft der deutschen Teerfarbenfabriken) を構成していたが、一種のカルテルである利益共同体形態ではアメリカのデュポンに対抗できないとの判断から、8社は単一の会社となることを決断した。ただし、社名には「利益共同体Interessen-Gemeinschaft 」を意味する IG が残された。I.G. Farbenindustrie AG

1951 ファーベンファブリケン・バイエル社として再スタートし、1972年、社名をバイエルAGに変更。以降、国際的な化学品・ヘルスケアグループとしての事業拡大が始まる。


In 1909, the chemist Fritz Hofmann succeeded in producing the elastic 弾力性のsubstance methyl-isoprene, thus paving the way for the development of synthetic rubber.  Hofmann conducted his research at the laboratories of Elberfelder Farbenfabriken vormals Friedrich Bayer & Co.- a company whose tradition is carried on today by the specialty chemicals group LANXESS.

Not a lot was known about rubber back then.  For example, not until 1905 did chemists discover that the chain molecules of this elastic material are comprised of countless strings of isoprene molecules, which, at that time, no one knew how to crosslink.  Hofmann decided to give it a try.  Because of the difficulties of producing the natural rubber moduleisoprene, he quickly settled on using methyl-isoprene, which has a very similar chemical structure and was easier to manufacture. 

天然ゴムはほぼ cis-1,4-ポリイソプレンで表すことの出来る、10万〜100万のイソプレン分子からなる付加重合体である。

Hofmann placed the material in tins, heated them and waited - sometimes even for months.  Depending on the temperatures involved, the substance that formed in the tins was sometimes softer and sometimes harder, but it was always elastic.  As it turned out, Hofmann had invented methyl rubber.  Thus, a hundred years ago, the patent for the worlds first synthetic rubber was awarded on September 12, 1909.

Continental - a leading rubber company even back then - started to produce the first car tires from this new material as early as 1910.  Hofmanns boss, Carl Duisberg, traveled 4,000 kilometers on the tires without a puncture.”  Even the German Kaiser soon had his car fitted with the tires and was extremely pleasedwith the results.


Hofmann, who was born in Kölleda near Weimar on November 2, 1866, attended school in Klosterdonndorf and Schulpforta before taking up practical training as a pharmacist in an apothecary shop in Göttingen.  He later studied pharmaceutics in Berlin and then chemistry in Rostock.  There he earned his doctorate, magna cum laude.

Prior to joining Bayer in 1897, he taught for two years at the Technical University of Aachen.  At the age of 85, Hofmann gave a talk at his old school about his life and work researching rubber. 

Hofmann was to receive a number of awards and distinctions for his scientific work, among them the Fischer Medal in Gold from the Society of German Chemists, an Honorary Plaque from the German Rubber Society and the gilded Buna Medal at the World Exhibition in Paris.  He died in Hanover in 1956 at the age of 90.  He lived to see much of the continuing rapid development made possible by his invention.

Synthetic rubber only grew in importance as it was discovered how to form chain molecules from rubber modules - such as Hofmanns methyl-isoprene - more quickly and effectively.  The addition of sodium into the mix made this possible.  In the 1920s, Hofmanns successors succeeded in using this metal and numerous processing tricks to create a different synthetic rubber from butadiene, a simplerchemical formulation from the natural rubber module isoprene.  This product went down in history as Buna- a name coined from its constituents, butadiene and sodium (Na).

The next step was taken soon after by the chemists Walter Bock and Eduard Tschunkur.  Bock in particular was responsible for combining butadiene with another highly promising module - styrene.  This gave rise to the styrene rubberBuna S, which - in a much evolved form - remains a key component in car tires today.  The patent for the copolymerization of butadiene and styrene was awarded on June 21, 1929.

This period also saw the development of another rubber from Leverkusen that became popular - the nitrile rubber Buna N, invented by the chemists Eduard Tschunkur, Helmut Kleiner and Erich Konrad.  A patent for this new, oil-repellent rubber was awarded on April 26, 1930.  After 1938, this remarkable elastomer was marketed under the name Perbunan, to distinguish it more clearly from Buna S.

Gradually, the chemical industry introduced more and more varieties of rubber to the market, all exhibiting new technical properties.  Along with these came countless innovations in the field of rubber chemicals, which are essential for manufacturing rubber, including antioxidants (antidegradants) and vulcanization accelerators, such as Vulkanox and Vulkacit.  Chemists and technicians from LANXESS have played key roles in many of these developments.